Clarke, playing in his first game since being injured on Jan. 12, made a career-high 13 free throws on the night, including six within the final 30 seconds to help Butler seal the win.
"It felt really good to be back," Clarke said in a release. "When something like that happens, it puts a lot of things in perspective. I just wanted to get back out there with these guys and coming away with a win was even better."
Temple's leading scorer Khalif Wyatt netted 16 of Temple's first 26 points to give the Owls (13-6, 2-3 A-10) a 26-22 lead with 6:32 remaining in the first half. Wyatt finished with 22 points and six assists, both team highs.
The Bulldogs (17-3, 4-1 A-10) countered with four straight points from sophomore forward Kameron Woods to tie the game before Clarke hit a go-ahead 3-pointer to give Butler a 29-26 lead. The Bulldogs never trailed again.
Woods finished with seven points five rebounds. He was one of five Bulldogs to haul down four or more boards.
Enjoying a 13-point lead with 13:50 remaining in the game, Butler was stunned by an 18-5 Temple run that resulted in the Owls knotting the game at 56-56.
Undeterred, the Bulldogs went on a run of their own, outscoring Temple 16-4 in the next four minutes and forty seconds to take a 72-56 lead.
Butler shot 52 percent (26-50) from the field and 79% from the charity stripe (23-29).
Junior forward Khyle Marshall added 19 points and five rebounds, while freshman guard Kellen Dunham tied career-highs for field goals made (6) and 3-pointers made (5), finishing with 17 points and four rebounds.
The Bulldogs were in action for the first time since suffering their only conference loss, a narrow 54-53 setback at La Salle on Wednesday.
"We have no time to mope during a game or after a game in this league," Butler head coach Brad Stevens said. "It's a monster every night."
Butler has won 14 of its last 15 contests and will travel to Saint Louis on Thursday at 9 p.m.